European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research 2023-03-23T13:36:23-04:00 Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research Synthesis of Al Thin Films with High Optical Transmittance by DC Magnetron Sputtering Process Parameter Optimization 2023-03-21T13:35:51-04:00 Md. Shahinur Rahman Heon-Ju Lee Muhammad Athar Uddin Islam Md. Rizwanul Fattah Md. Shafiqul Islam <p>Nanostructured Al thin film with higher optical transmittance and electrical conductivity has intensive applications in solar cells and optical and microelectronic devices. This experimental-based research study has optimized the DC magnetron sputtering deposition parameters (sputtering power, sputtering current, voltage, and working gas pressure) for Al thin film deposition to obtain the highest optical transmittance and lower sheet resistance. Optical transmittance, surface roughness, film thickness, sheet resistance, grain size, and surface morphology were characterized using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, surface profiler, spectroscopic ellipsometry, four-point probe, and FE-SEM, respectively to determine the effects of sputtering process parameters on Al films’ different properties. Experimental investigations reveal that electrical conductivity, surface roughness, grain size, and deposition rate increase with increasing of sputtering power at certain working gas pressure. At the optimized condition (sputtering power 80 W, working gas pressure 5 mTorr, deposition time 5 min and ambient temperature), the relatively higher optical transmittance in visible region 96%, moderate sheet resistance 0.196 ohm/square and lowest average surface roughness 2.86 nm were obtained for Al thin film. After all, this research study will help to understand the best Al film deposition parameters in terms of optical transmittance and electrical conductivity for future research and industrial applications.</p> 2023-03-21T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Shahinur Rahman, Heon-Ju Lee, Muhammad Athar Uddin, Islam Md. Rizwanul Fattah, Md. Shafiqul Islam Oil Removal from Polluted Seawater using Carbon Avocado Peel as Bio-Absorbent 2023-03-23T13:36:23-04:00 Rana N. Malhas Kingsley W. Amadi <p>Oil spills are a very dangerous occurrence for the marine ecosystem as the marine life-form's existence gets unnecessarily threatened. Since the exploration of oil from marine resources has become a must and oil spills end up occurring accidentally, as a result, it becomes important to employ various oil spill cleanup methods. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate the oil sorption capacity of dried carbonized avocado peel (AP) waste. AP was dried under the sun and microwaved to have the activated carbon AP. In this study, batch adsorption studies were conducted to remove different oil types (Crude oil, Diesel, Kerosene, and Gas oil) from polluted seawater using AP. The effect of various important parameters, namely, mixing time, adsorbent dose, oil dose, oil types, and reusability on the oil uptake, and their optimum conditions for maximum sorption efficiency was studied. Batch studies indicated that an adsorbent dosage of 7 g, mixing time of 20 minutes under a mixing rate of 45–50 revolutions/min, 1 g of oil and provides maximum oil removal efficiency in the present study. Based on the data fit result of the adsorption; the 7 g AP at 20 min (90%) had better oil retention than the 1.5 g (66%), 3 g (77%), and 5 g (82%) AP. The results indicated that the maximum oil adsorption percentage upon increasing the adsorbent dose (1.5 g, 3 g, 5 g, and 7 g peel) was 66-90% for Crude oil, 45-68% for Diesel, 35-56% for Kerosene, and 19-45% for Gas oil at 20 min using 1 gram oil. The results revealed that sorption capacity decreased as the oil got lighter. Increasing the oil dose reduce the adsorption capacity (Crude oil 90-66%, Diesel 64-45%, Kerosene 50-39%, and Gas oil 40-12%). The oil sorption capacities of the AP sorbents reduce gradually from 90-64% after 10 cycles, with about 72%, since the oleophilic nature of the peel surface was affected during the regeneration process. The kinetic data was analyzed for all adsorbent doses. The pseudo-first order kinetic model was found to agree well with then experimental data found. The result showed that AP biosorbent followed pseudo-first order kinetics. According to the results presented, the cheap efficient AP oil spill sorbent could be developed as a potential material to be used in seawater treatment for oil removal. The avocado carbon displayed excellent adsorption properties for the simulated seawater effluents containing oil.</p> 2023-03-23T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rana N. Malhas, Kingsley W. Amadi Comparative Study of Solar Radiation Models for the Estimation of Solar Radiation Using Short-Term Meteorological Data in Lawra, Ghana 2023-03-02T13:30:21-05:00 Emmanuel A. Sarsah Adams Yunus Abdul-Rahim Bawa Joshua A. Akanbasiam <p>Monthly average daily global solar radiation data are essential for the design and study of solar energy systems. The performance and accuracy of eleven models for the estimation of monthly average global solar radiation were compared in this study. Nineteen months (Nov 2020 – May 2022) ground measurement data consisting of monthly mean daily sunshine duration, relative humidity, minimum and maximum temperatures, and global solar radiation collected from the Lawra Solar Plant were used. The models were compared using statistical indices. According to the indices, most of the models were in reasonably good agreement with the measured data. Two model equations, however, were found to have the highest accuracy and can thus be used to estimate monthly average global solar radiation in Lawra and other places with similar climatic conditions where radiation data is unavailable.</p> 2023-03-02T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Emmanuel A. Sarsah, Adams Yunus, Abdul-Rahim Bawa, Joshua A. Akanbasiam Integration of Floating Solar Photovoltaic Systems with Hydropower Plants in Greece 2023-03-14T13:33:25-04:00 John Vourdoubas <p>Floating solar photovoltaics in water bodies is a novel clean energy technology which has been developed rapidly during the last decade. The current work investigates the possibility and the potential of installing floating photovoltaic systems in the existing hydropower plants in Greece. Studies related with the use of floating photovoltaics in water reservoirs in Greece are limited so far. The characteristics of the existing 24 hydropower plants in Greece have been used for the estimation of the solar photovoltaic systems which can be installed in their water reservoirs. It has been found that the nominal power of these solar energy systems which can be installed in their water reservoirs, covering 10% of their water surface, is at 3,861 MWp while the annual generated electricity at 5,212.35 GWh corresponding at 10.04 % of the annual electricity demand in the country. The capacity factor of the integrated solar and hydro power systems is increased by more than 20%. The research indicates that the existing hydropower plants in Greece can host, in their water dams, floating photovoltaic systems generating significant amounts of green electricity while they also result in many environmental benefits. These novel solar energy systems can contribute, together with other benign energy technologies, in the achievement of the national and EU target for net zero carbon emissions by 2050.</p> 2023-03-14T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 John Vourdoubas Elastoplastic Quasi-Static and Impact Load Response of Steel Structure Sub-Assemblage with CFRP Strips 2023-03-14T13:33:37-04:00 Ali Al Aloosi Zia Razzaq <p>Presented in this paper is the outcome of an experimental investigation of the elastoplastic quasi-static and impact load response of a steel sub-assemblage constructed using a pair of hollow square section members with or without Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strips. The sub-assemblage consists of a long structural member welded to a short member, thus representing a typical combination of a column and a beam on the face of a multi-story steel building frame. The column is subjected to a lateral quasi-static or impact load. Tests are conducted on four separate steel sub-assemblages. The first two tests are conducted with a gradually increasing flexural load applied at the midspan of the column up to the collapse condition without and with CFRP strips, respectively. Additional two tests are performed with a flexural impact load applied at midspan of the column also both without and with CFRP strips, respectively. The results of the study show that CFRP strips substantially increase the quasi-static collapse load of the sub-assemblage. However, when subjected to an impact load, the steel structure sub-assemblage with CFRP strips developed smaller strains in comparison with those without the CFRP strips. The post-impact time-dependent strains also became considerably smaller for the sub-assemblage with CFRP strips.</p> 2023-03-14T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ali Al Aloosi, Zia Razzaq Higher-Order Effects in Biaxial Flexure of GFRP I-Section Beams 2022-12-27T05:03:26-05:00 Zia Razzaq Faridoon Z. Razzaq <p>A theoretical study of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) beams subjected to biaxial bending moments is presented with a focus on the influence of higher-order effects on maximum normal stresses. It is shown that the biaxial bending type of loading causes a dramatic increase in the maximum normal stress for a GFRP beam when induced torsional effects are included. The study demonstrates that the traditional first-order theory can grossly underestimate the maximum normal stress in a GFRP beam. Based on the numerical results presented using a higher-order theory which also accounts for induced warping normal stresses, the maximum normal stress is found to be about two to three times larger than that determined using the first-order theory.</p> 2023-03-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zia Razzaq, Faridoon Z. Razzaq