Production of Bio-oil through Fast Pyrolysis of Baobab Waste Shells
The increasing demand for transportation fuel, due to increased urbanization, is now compounded by depleting and unstable crude oil reserves. Furthermore, the volatile market and the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels have driven the usage of biomass as a potential energy source. Of particular interest are biomass waste and baobab shells present an interesting option. The objective of this study is to produce bio oil by a fast pyrolysis process from baobab shells. The effect of reaction temperature, biomass particle size and fluidizing gas flow rate on the liquid product yield are investigated. The maximum liquid yield obtained was 36.6% at 500 OC at a N2 gas flowrate of 11.6 l/min and a particle size of less than 0.5 mm.
G.W. Huber, “Breaking the chemical and engineering barriers to lignocellulosic biofuels: hydrocarbon biorefineries,” American Chemical Society, pp.1–177, 2007.
A. V. Bridgwater, D. Meier and D. Radlein, “An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass,” Organic Geochemistry, vol. 30, pp.1479–1493, 1999.
J. Gruenwald and M. Galizia, “Market brief in the european union for selcted natural ingredients derived from native species Adansonia digitata L. baobab,” In United Nation Conference on Trade and Development. pp. 35, 2005.
J. Gebauer, K. El-Siddig and G. Ebert, “Baobab (Adansonia digitata L .): a review on a multipurpose tree with promising future in the Sudan,,” Gartenbauwissenschaft, vol. 67, no. 4, pp.155–160, 2002.
D., Mohan, C.U., Pittman, and P.H., Steele, “Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil : A critical review,” Energy Fuels, vol. 4, pp.848–889, 2006.
D., Meier, O. Faix, “State of the art of applied fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials - A review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 68, pp.71–77, 1999.
S., Yaman, S., “Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 45, no. 5, pp.651–671, 2004.
M. Joardder, M. Islam and M. Beg, “Pyrolysis of coconut shell for bio-oil,” International Conference on Mechanical Engineering,Bangladesh, pp.18–20, 2011.
H.F. Gercel, “The production and evaluation of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of sun flower-oil cake,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 23, pp.307–314, 2002.
I. Demiral and E.A. Ayan, “Pyrolysis of grape bagasse: effect of pyrolysis conditions on the product yields and characterization of the liquid product,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp.3946–3951, 2011.
I. Wilkomirsky, E. Moreno and A. Berg, “Bio-Oil production from biomass by flash pyrolysis in a three-stage fluidized bed reactors system,” Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, pp.6–10, 2014.
A.V. Bridgwater, “Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 38, pp.68–94, 2012.
H.S. Heo, H. J. Park, J.H. Yim, J. Sohn, J. Park, S. Kim, C. Ryu, J. Jeon and Y. Park, “Influence of operation variables on fast pyrolysis of miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 10, pp.3672–3677, 2010.
A. Heidari, R. Stahl, H. Younesi, A. Rashidi, N.Troeger, and A.A. Ghoreyshi, “Effect of process conditions on product yield and composition of fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus grandis in fluidized bed reactor,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp.2594–2602, 2014.
N. Abdullah and H. Gerhauser, “Bio-oil derived from empty fruit bunches,” Fuel, vol. 87, no. 12, pp.2606–2613, 2008.
F.A. Agblevor and S. Besler, “Inorganic compounds in biomass feedstocks . 1. effect on the quality of fast pyrolysis oils,” Energy Fuels, vol. 7, pp.293–298, 1996.
R. Lou, S. Wu and G. Lv, “Factors related to minerals and ingredients influencing the distribution of pyrolysates derived from herbaceous biomass,” Bioresources, vol. 8, no. 1, pp.1345–1360, 2013.
A. Bridgwater, G. Peacocke, “Fast pyrolysis processes for biomass,” Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 4, no. 4, pp.1–73, 2000.
E. Kim, M. No, J. Koh and S. Kim, “Compositional characterization of petroleum heavy oils generated from vacuum distillation and catalytic cracking by positive-mode APPI FT-ICR mass spectrometry,” Mass Spectrometry Letters, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.41–44, 2011.
H.S. Choi, Y.S. Choi and H.C. Park, “Fast pyrolysis characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass with varying reaction conditions,” Renewable Energy, vol. 42, pp.131–135, 2012.
F. Ateş, “Fast pyrolysis of sesame stalk : yields and structural analysis of bio-oil,” Journal of Analytical and Appilied Pyrolysis, vol. 71, pp.779–790, 2004.