Higher-Order Effects in Biaxial Flexure of GFRP I-Section Beams
A theoretical study of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) beams subjected to biaxial bending moments is presented with a focus on the influence of higher-order effects on maximum normal stresses. It is shown that the biaxial bending type of loading causes a dramatic increase in the maximum normal stress for a GFRP beam when induced torsional effects are included. The study demonstrates that the traditional first-order theory can grossly underestimate the maximum normal stress in a GFRP beam. Based on the numerical results presented using a higher-order theory which also accounts for induced warping normal stresses, the maximum normal stress is found to be about two to three times larger than that determined using the first-order theory.
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