Simulation of hardness distribution in quenched specimens has been investigated using three-dimensional finite-element (FE) analyses which reduced into a 2-dimensional axisymmetric analysis based on Ansys Software capable of predicting temperature history; evolution hardness of four different types of Molybdenum steel bars during thermal processing of materials in quenching process is presented. The Jominy test results are used to estimate specimen hardness. specimen points hardness used to be determined through conversion of evaluated characteristic cooling time for phase transformation t8/5 into hardness. The lowest hardness point (LHP) of each quenched Molybdenum steel bar has been determined to be in mid its length in the center. Experimentally, it is quite impossible to determine this hardness value, and earlier approaches could only assess surface hardness. Normally, this value of hardness at the surface is greater than (LHP), that, under certain conditions might lead to component failure and deformation. The model can be employed to establish a cooling method to attain the required microstructure as well as mechanical properties, which include hardness.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Developing 1-dimensional transient heat transfer axi-symmetric MM to predict the hardness, determination LHP and to study the effect of radius on E-LHP of industrial quenched steel bar. Heat Transfer Phenomena and Applications, 2012: 153-182.
Elmaryami AS. Unsteady state computer simulation of 2 chromium steel at 925°C as austenitizing temperature to determine the lowest hardness point (LHP). Journal of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering. 2021; 18(2): 79-91.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Developing 1D MM of axisymmetric transient quenched chromium steel to determine LHP. Journal of Metallurgy, 2012; 9.
Robert K. Quenching and Tempering of Welded Steel Tubular. 2001. 2001. [Internet] Retrieved from: https://www.thefabricator.com/thefabricator/article/tubepipefabrication/quenching-and-tempering-of-welded-carbon-steel-tubulars.
Elmaryami A, Khalid HM, Alamaria A, Alashebe O, Ali S, Salem A, Khaled R, et al. Determination the Corrosion Rate of Carbon Steel (0.4%C) Due to Thermal Cycling, Oil Cooled. Tecnica Italiana-Italian Journal of Engineering Science, 2021; 65(1): 74–78. https://doi.org/10.18280/ti-ijes.650111.
Elmaryami A, Khalid HMB, Abdulssalam AM, Abdulssalam AA, Alssafi MM, Abdullateef AS, Mohamed ZA. Design of a Simple Model of S. P. P. to Study the Effect of Increasing the Boiler Pressure on the Efficiency of the Model. Engineering &Amp; Technology Review. 2021; 2(1): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.47285/etr.v2i1.60.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. A Novel (1-D) Mathematical Modeling to Determine (E-LHP) of Industrial Transient Heat Transfer Quenched Chromium Steel 5147H, Sea Water Cooled. Tecnica Italiana-Italian Journal of Engineering Science. 2021; 65(1): p. 74-78.
Budinski KG. Engineering Material: Properties and Selection. 4th ed. Prentice Hall International. 1992: 285-309.
Elmaryami ASA, Salem AS, Ali SS, Mokhtar HO, Khaled RA. Corrosion rate calculation of carbon steel (0.4% C) after subjected to thermal cycling, sea water cooled. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 2020; 7(6).
Moaveni S. Finite element analysis theory and application with ANSYS, 3/e. 2011: Pearson Education India.
Elmaryami ASA, Abdulla Sousi, Walid Saleh, Sharefa El-Mabrouk Abd El-Mawla, Mohamed Elshayb, Maximum Allowable Thermal Stresses Calculation of Water Tube Boiler during Operation. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 2019. 7(7): p. 191-199.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Developing 1-D mm of axisymmetric transient quenched molybdenum steel AISI-SAE 4037H to determine lowest hardness point. Journal of Metallurgy and Materials Science. 2011; 53(3): 289-303.
Fuhrmann J, Hömberg D. Numerical simulation of the surface hardening of steel. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow. 1999; 9(6): 705-724.
Elmaryami ASA, Omar B, Ali FA, Mohammad SA, Ahmad AK, Wael BE, Moftaah AA. Study of LHP and Effect of Radius in Heat Treated steel 1045 Bar by 1-D FEM Modeling. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2015; 7(5): p. 50-58.
Elmaryami AS, Omar BB. Transient Computer Simulation of Industrial Quenched Steel Bar to Determine the Lowest Hardness Point of Molybdenum and Boron Steel at 850 C as Austenitizing Temperature Quenched in Different Medium. International Journal of Materials Science. 2013; 8(1): 13-28.
Chandler H. Hardness testing. 1999: ASM international.
Elmaryami ASA, Alsoussi AA, Gomaa M, Abd-Allah E. Determination the cooling time, rate of cooling, jominy distance and the hardness during heat transfer of quenched steel bar. Journal of Science-Garyounis University. 2017; 38(5): 0-11.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Modeling the effect of radius on temperature history of transient quenched boron steel. Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, 2013; 19(2): 105-111.
Moaveni S. Finite Element Analysis. A Brief History of the Finite Element Method and ANSYS. 6-8, 2003, Pearson Education, Inc.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B, Effect of radius on temperature history of transient industrial quenched chromium Steel-8650H by developing 1-D MM. Applied Mathematical Sciences, 2013; 7(10): p. 471-486.
Film coefficient of water (h) is provided by Steel Industries (Sabah) SdnBhd, Malaysia and it is dependent upon the surface temperature of steel bar. Since h is provided, hence, has simplified the convection of cooling chamber without considering the complicated nature of forced convection, 2009.
Abdlmanam SA, Elmaryami, Elshayeb M, Omar B, Basu P, Hasan SBH. Development of a numerical model of quenching of steel bars for determining cooling curves. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2013; 55(3): 216-219.
Omar B, Elmaryami AS. Developing 1-D MM of transient industrial quenched chromium steel-5147H to study the effect of radius on temperature history. Advanced Materials Research. 2013; 711: 115-127.
Elmaryami AS. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Corrosion and Microstructure of Plain Carbon Steels. Materials science & technology conference and exhibition: MS&T'07. 2007; (6): 3771-3784.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Modeling LHP in carbon steel-1045 during quenching. Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling, 2012. 2(12): p. 35-47.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Determination LHP of axisymmetric transient Molybdenum steel-4037H quenched in seawater by developing 1-d mathematical model. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 2012; 18(3): 203-222.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Modeling the lowest hardness point in a steel bar during quenching. Materials Performance and Characterization, 2012; 1(1): 1-15.
Ahmida MA, Elmaryami ASA. Investigation of Using Physical Optical Reflectivity Probes in Evaluating and Monitoring Powder Mixtures of Sugar and Slag. Instrumentation Mesures, Métrologies, 2022; 21(2).
Elmaryami AS, Omar BB. The lowest hardness point calculation by transient computer simulation of industrial steel bar quenched in oil at different austenitizing temperatures. in 2011 International Conference on Management and Service Science. 2011. IEEE.
Elmaryami ASA, Hasan SBH, Omar B, Elshayeb M. Unsteady state hardness prediction of industrial quenched steel bar [one and two dimensional]. in Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition,(MS & T'09). 2009.
Elmaryami AS. Effect of thermal cycling on hardness of plain carbon steels. Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition, MS&T'08. Pittsburgh, PA; United States. 2008; 1(3): 1502-1514.
Elmaryami AS, Omar B. Effect of Austenitizing Temperatures on Hardness of Two Chromium Steel Quenched in Sea Water by Unsteady State Computer Simulation. Materials Science & Technology[MS&T’11] Conference & Exhibition; Columbus, Ohio, USA. 2011.
Omar B, Elshayeb M, Elmaryami ASA. The Microstructures and Corrosion of Carbon Steel after Subjected to Heat Treatment then Thermal Cycling, Water Cooled. 5th European Metallurgical Conference. 2009; 1(4): 1492- 1495.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.