Insert Switches Inside to Increase Battery Lifespan

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Christophe Savard, Dr.

  •   Pascal Venet, Pr.

  •   Eric Niel, Pr.

  •   Laurent Pietrac, Dr.

  •   Ali Sari, Pr.

Abstract

This paper shows the possible gain on time before the end of useful time brought by switches addition in a multicell battery. In a first time, it presents a battery electric model. A battery includes many identical electrical energy cells that electrically interact. From a behavioral standpoint, cell performance is measured by fundamental parameters: State of Charge (SoC) and State of Health (SoH). To simulate cell electrical behavior, the Thevenin model or the Nernst model are often used. However, these models do not take into account the cells aging or the possible interactions on aging. A cell ages mainly in two ways: cyclic and calendar. This aging impacts both the elements of the equivalent electrical model and the fundamental parameters (SoC and SoH). Thus, the conventional electric model of a cell does not accurately reflect the cell aging. In this paper, another formal model based on the fundamental curve that relates electrical and behavioral parameters is proposed. It integrates aging into the equivalent electric model estimation. In a second time, in order to validate this model, this cell model is used to simulate parallel-series association. To improve battery lifespan, in addition to the usual balancing techniques, it may be relevant to require some traditional reliability and operating safety solutions. This requires to add switches inside battery. The presented simulation shows adding switches solution is currently not deployed. This is justified in this paper by examining the impact provide on lifespan improvement on an example, which is pretty weak. But it also shows that however, by managing active cells in a different way, adding switches and spare cells can really reach this improvement.


Keywords: LiFePO4 batteries, modeling, SoC, SoH, battery aging parameters

References

C. Chellaswamy and R. Ramesh. “Green energy harvesting: Recharging electric vehicle for pollution free environment”, International Conference on Smart Structures and Systems (ICSSS), pp. 59-66, 2014

ISO Standard, “ISO 12405-4:2018: Electrically propelled road vehicles – Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems -- Part 4: Performance testing”, Edition 1, pp. 1-72, 2018.

E. Riviere, P. Venet, A. Sari, F. Meniere and Y. Bultel, “LiFePO4 Battery State of Health Online Estimation Using Electric Vehicle Embedded Incremental Capacity Analysis”, 2015 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Montreal, QC, pp. 1-6, 2015.

A. Seaman, T. Dao and J. McPhee, “A survey of mathematics-based equivalentcircuit and electrochemical battery models for hybrid and electric vehicle simulation”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 256, pp. 410-423, 2014.

B. Chen, H. Ma, H. Fang, H. Fan, K. Luo, and B. Fan, “An approach for state of charge estimation of Li-ion battery based on Thevenin equivalent circuit model”, 2014 Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-2014 Hunan), Zhangiiaijie, China, pp. 647-652, 2014.

L. Pei, R. Lu and C. Zhu, éRelaxation model of the open-circuit voltage for state-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries”, IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, vol. 3, pp. 112-117; 2013.

A. Lievre, A. Sari, P. Venet, A. Hijazi, M. Ouattara-Brigaudet and S. Pelissier, “Practical Online Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Apparent Series Resistance for Mild Hybrid Vehicles”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, pp. 4505-4511, 2015.

Y. Wang, H. Fang and L. Zhou, “Revisiting the state-of-charge estimation for lithium-ion batteries: A methodical investigation of the extended Kalman filter approach”, IEEE Control Systems, vol. 37, n. 4, pp. 73-96, 2017.

R. Klein, N.A. Chaturvedi, J. Christensen, J. Ahmed, R. Findeisen and A. Kojic, “Electrochemical Model Based Observer Design for a Lithium-Ion Battery”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 21, n. 2, pp. 289-301, 2013.

A. Li, S. Pelissier, P. Venet and P. Gyan, “Fast Characterization Method for Modeling Battery Relaxation Voltage”, Batteries, vol. 2(2), n. 7, pp. 1-15, 2016.

P. Gyan, P. Aubret, J. Hafsaou, F. Sellier and S. Bourloté, “Experimental Assessment of Battery Cycle Life Within the SIMSTOCK Research Program Oil & Gas Science and Technology”, Revue d'IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Français du Pétrole, vol. 68, pp. 137-147, French; 2013.

K. Smith, J. Neubauer, E. Wood, M. Jun and A. Pesaran, “Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime; Applications in Design and Health Management for pulse operation of lithium ion batteries”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 18, n. 3, pp. 654-663, 2013.

X.T. Liu, S.X. Qin, Y. Hy, X. He, X. Zheng and C.R. Cao, “SOC estimation of the lithium-ion battery with the temperature-based Nernst model”, 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia), pp.1419-1422, 2016.

Y. Xing, E. Ma and K. Tsui, “A Case Study on Battery Life Prediction Using Particle Filtering”, 2012 Prognostics & System Health Management Conference (PHM-2012 Beijing), pp.385-390, 2012.

M. Gholizadeh and F. Salmasi, “Estimation of State of Charge, Unknown Nonlinearities, and State of Health of a Lithium-Ion Battery Based on a Comprehensive Unobservable Model”, IEEE Tranactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, p. 1335-1344, 2014.

S. Wang, Y. Wang, M. Lv and X. Ye~X. A reliability assessment system for power mosfet using multi-parameters, 2016 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), Tucson, AZ, pp. 334-340, 2016.

C. Letot, I. Soleimanmeigouni, I.A. Khouy and A. Ahmadi, “A comparative study of the gamme and Wiener prprocess for track geometry degradation modeling”, 20eme Congres de maitrise des risques et de surete de fonctionnement, Saint-Malo, France; French, pp. 1-9, 2016.

E. Redondo-Iglesias, P. Venet and S. Pelissier, “Measuring Reversible and Irreversible Capacity Losses on Lithium-Ion Batteries”, 2016 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Hangzhou, Chna, pp.399-403, 2016.

M. Broussely, P. Biensan, F. Bonhomme, P. Blanchard, S. Herreyre, K. Nechev and R. Staniewicz, “Main aging mechanisms in Li ion batteries”, Journal of Power Sources, pp. 90-96, 2005.

E. Redondo-Iglesias, P. Venet and S. Pelissier, “Global Model for Self-Discharge and Capacity Fade in Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the Generalized Eyring Relationship”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 67, pp. 104-113, 2018.

M. Dubarry and A. Devi, “Battery Cycling and Calendar Aging: Year One Testing Result”, Techincal paper. University of Hawaii at Manoa, University of Hawaii at Manoa; , pp. 12-16, 2016.

A. Hausmann and C. Depcik, “Expanding the Peukert equation for battery capacity modeling through inclusion of a temperature dependency”, Journal of Power Sources, pp. 148-158, 2013.

I. Bloom, B. Cole, J. Sohn, S. Jone, E. Polzin, V. Battaglia, G. Henriksen, C. Motloch, R. Richaardson, T. Unkelhaeuser, “IngersollD~and Case~H. An Accelerated calendar and cycle life study of Li-ion cells”, Journal of Power Sources, pp. 238-247, 2001.

G. Ning, B. Haran and B. Popov, “Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries at high discharge rates”, Journal of Power Sources, pp. 160-169, 2003.

D. Sauer and H. Wenzl, “Comparison of different approaches for lifetime prediction of electrochemical systems, Using lead-acid batteries as example”, Journal of Power Sources, pp. 534-546, 2008.

D. Le and X. Tang, “Lithium-ion Battery State of Health Estimation Using Ah-V Characterization”, 2011 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, n. 044, pp. 1-7, 2011.

M. Dubarry, C. Pastor-Fernández, G. Baure, T.F. Yu, W.D. Widanageb and J. Marco, “Battery energy storage system modeling: Investigation of intrinsic cell-tocell variations”, Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 23, pp. 19-28, 2019.

S. Shili, A. Sari, A. Hijazi and P. Venet, “Online lithium-ion batteries health monitoring using balancing circuits”, 18th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Toronto, Canada, pp.159-166, 2017.

C. Savard, L. Piétrac, P. Veet, A. Sari and E. Niel, “Comparing lithium-ion battery architecture performances with Colored Petri Net”, SN Applied Scienes, vol.1, n.1691, pp.1-16, 2019.

C. Savard, E. Niel, L. Pietrac, P. Venet~P and A. Sari, “Amelioration de la fiabilite des structures matricielles de batteries”, 20eme Congres de maitrise des risques et de surete de fonctionnement, Saint Malo, France; French, n. 4E/1, pp.1-10, 2016.

M. Dubarry, G. Baure, C. Pastor-Fernández, T.F. Yu, W.D. Widanage and J. Marco, “Battery energy storage system modeling: A combined comprehensive approach,” Journal of Energy Storage. vol. 21, pp. 172–185, 2019.

Y. Chen, W. Gong and W. Zhang, “Life Cycle Prediction Model of Safety Vent based on Two-phase Degradation Process”, IEEE Access, vol. 6;, pp. 19034-19043, 2018.

K.H. Tseng, C.K. Shum, J.W. Kim, X. Wang, L. Zhu and X. Cheng, “Integrating Landsat Imageries and Digitel Elevation Models to Infer Water Level Change in Hoover Dam”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol.9, n.4, pp.1696-1709, 2016.

O. Tremblay. and L.A. Dessaint, “Experimental Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for EV Applications”, World Electric Vehicle Journal, vol.3, pp. 289-298, 2009.

J. Wang, P. Liu, J. Hicks-Garner, E. Sherman, S. Soukiazian, M. Verbrugge, H. Tataria, J. Musser and P. Finamore, “Cycle-life model for graphite-LiFePO4 cells”, Journal of Power Sources, pp. 3942-3948, 2010.

M. Soussens, R. Laulheret and A. Cabardaye, “Modeles de degradation des batteries d'accumulateurs”, technical note, CNES, French, pp. 1-5, 2014.

C. Zhang, F. Yan, C. Du, J. Kang and R. Turkson, “Evaluating the Degradation Mechanism and State of Health of LiFePO4 Lithium-Ion Batteries in Real-World Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles”, Energies, vol.10, n.110, pp. 1-13, 2017.

S. Khan, M. Shahzad, U. Habib, W. Gawlik and P. Palensky, “Stochastic battery model for aggregation of thermostatically controlled loads”, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 570-575, 2016.

M. Damay, G. Friedrich and C. Forgez, “Modelisation thermique en vue du dimensionnement d'un pack batterie, avec prise en compte du couplage electro-thermique pour la caracterisation des pertes electriques”, Symposium de Genie Electrique, Grenoble, France; French, pp. 1-8, 2016.

R. German, S. Shili, A. Sari, P. Venet and A. Bouscayrol, “Characterization Method for Electrothermal Model of Li-Ion Large Cells”, 2017 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), pp. 690-695, 2017.

M. Baumann, L. Wildfeuer. S. Rohr and M. Lienkamp, “Parameter variations within Li-Ion battery packs – Theoretical investigations and experimental quantification”, Journal of Energy Storage, vol.18, pp. 295–307, 2018.

F. Jin and K. Shin, “Pack Sizing and Reconfiguration for Management of Large-Scale Batteries”, 2012 IEEE/ACM Third International Conference Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS), Beijing, China, pp. 138-147, 2012.

H. Kim and K. Shin, “Dependable, Efficient, Scalable Architecture for Management of Large-Scale Batteries”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 8, n. 2, pp. 406-417, 2012.

C. Savard, A. Sari, P. Venet E. Niel and L. Pietrac, “C3C: a structure for high reliability with minimum redundancy for batteries”, 17th IEEE International Congres of Industrial Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 281-286, 2016.

J. Ota, T. Sato and H. Akagi, “Enhancement of Performance, Availability, and Flexibility of a Battery Energy Storage System Based on a Modular Multilevel Cascaded Converter (MMCC-SSBC)”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 31, pp. 2791-2799, 2016.

C. Savard, P. Venet, L. Pietrac, E. Niel and A. Sari, “Increase lifespan with a cell management algorithm in electric energy storage systems”, 19th International Conference on Industrial Technology, Lyon, France, pp. 1748-1753, 2018.

K. Smith, T. Markel, G. Kim and A. Pesaran, “Design of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries for Long Life and Low Cost Robustness to Geographic and Consumer-Usage Variation”, available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/48933.pdf, NREL/PR-5400-48933, pp. 1-29, 2016.

M. Beirao, M. do Rosario-Calado, J. Pombo and S. Mariano, “Balancing management system for improving Li-ion batteries capacity usage and lifespan”, IEEE 16th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), pp. 598-603, 2016.

C. Savard, P. Venet, E. Niel, L. Pietrac and A. Sari, “Comparison of Battery Architecture Dependability”, Batteries, vol. 4, n. 31, pp. 1-12, 2018.

S. Shili, A. Hijazi, A. Sari, X. Lin-Shi and P. Venet, “Balancing circuit new control for supercapacitor storage system lifetime maximization”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 32, n. 6, pp. 4939-4948}, 2016.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Savard, C., Venet, P., Niel, E., Pietrac, L. and Sari, A. 2020. Insert Switches Inside to Increase Battery Lifespan. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 2 (Feb. 2020), 201–209. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejeng.2020.5.2.1769.